A few more interesting papers on explicit v. implicit rationing in the spirit of continuing the conversation.
- David Mechanic with a defense of implicit rationing in the BMJ (1995), along with some comparisons as he sees them between the NHS and managed care in the U.S. circa early 1990s.
- Len Doyal making the case for explicit rationing, also in the BMJ (1997).
- Joanna Coast in the same issue as the Doyal paper arguing against explicit rationing, in favor of implicit BMJ (in 1997).
These are short, clear papers. Lots more that you could read; check references of these papers and papers that have cited them.